James Hurysz

Who owned Arlington prior to the American Civil War?

Published on: 10-06-22

Before the Civil War, the Lee family and Confederate General Robert E. Lee resided in Arlington. In 1861, when Union troops began to advance, the Lee family left their home. By the end of the war, the Union Army had outgrown the cemeteries in the Washington, D.C. area, and in 1864, Arlington became a national military cemetery.

Parke, George Washington. Before the Civil War, Custis owned Arlington but did not reside there. The estate was inherited from his father, who passed away in 1781. He used the property to construct a big mansion. The structure was inspired by the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens. Custis also composed historical plays and gave patriotic speeches. Custis even authored a book titled "Recollections and Private Memoirs of George Washington" about Washington.

Before the Civil War, Custis had property in four Virginia counties and two huge plantations. He also advocated for agricultural reform and commercial autonomy. However, he opposed slavery for economic reasons and advocated for its gradual abolition. Additionally, Custis was an active member of the American Colonization Society. Despite his opposition to slavery, he ordered the release of 196 slaves within five years after his death.

George Washington Parke Custis bequeathed Arlington House to his daughter Mary, who resided in Arlington at the time of his death. Sadly, the mansion had fallen into disrepair by the time the war began. Lee had taken a three-year leave of absence from his military duty to tend to the estate. In the interim, Lee exploited the slaves that lived there.

The Syphax family is descended from a slave woman who married a free black minister in the 1790s. George Washington Parke Custis, her son, received the land in 1802. He supervised the building of Arlington House, which is located on the grounds of Arlington Cemetery. He eventually wed Maria Carter, the daughter of a slave.

The family's accomplishments and status may be traced back to the African royal family. Their ancestors have played significant roles in the Arlington County African-American community. Their impact can still be felt today. Even though they were unable to possess a plantation, the Syphax family left an imprint on the town's history.

William Syphax was a notable African-American individual. Initially educated at Arlington, he later attended private schools in Washington, D.C., where he acquired much acclaim. Later, he served as a trustee of the Colored Public Schools in Washington, D.C., and for three years, he held the positions of chairman and treasurer.

Prior to the American Civil War, the Lee family held a residence in Arlington, Virginia. Arlington House was the name of the home. It was valued at $150,000 and featured a strategic view of Washington, D.C. The ownership dispute remained unsolved when Lee died on October 12, 1870.

The Lee family was extremely wealthy and powerful. Lee was born in 1807, the son of a cavalry officer and American Revolution veteran Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee. Additionally, Lee's father served as Virginia's governor and a member of Congress. His mother, Ann Hill Carter Lee, was Robert "King" Carter's granddaughter. Lee grew up on the Stratford Hall plantation, surrounded by thirty African Americans who were held as slaves.

Lee and his wife inherited a lot of slaves upon their marriage. His wife received from her father a family of enslaved people. Lee utilized these laborers for the estate and compelled them to assist pay off the debts. He subsequently acquired Arlington House, a residence in Arlington, close to Washington, D.C. The residence had debts and approximately 200 slaves. George Washington Park Custis, the father-in-law of Lee, desired the emancipation of these slaves within five years. Lee became the owner of hundreds of enslaved individuals, with whom he was frequently described as hostile and brutal.

Before the Civil War, Mary Custis Lee was the owner of the Arlington House. She cherished the land and had resided there for many years. Washingtonians requested that Lee surrender his property to the Confederate authority upon the outbreak of the Civil War. Mary, however, did not wish to depart. She packed up all of her family heirlooms, including a big collection of Washington relics, and moved to a new home. She did not request her children's assistance in packing. Her husband was away with his wife and children in the White House, Rooney was with his wife at school, Annie was visiting a newborn, and Rob and Mildred were in school. Mary Custis Lee could not return to Arlington for nearly a decade.

Despite her ambition to purchase the land, Lee was unable to pay her property taxes due to a lack of funds. As a result, her outstanding property tax payments were eventually auctioned off in the Alexandria Courthouse. Phillip Fendall, the cousin of Custis Lee, attempted to pay the taxes but was denied. The government was aware of her poor condition and did not want to force her to pay taxes, which she could not afford.

 4 Reasons Why Arlington, Virginia is Famous 

Published On: - 09-21-2022

 Arlington, Virginia, is a city with a lot of history. From being the site of some of America's most important monuments to being the home of one of the nation's most popular sports teams, there are many reasons why Arlington is famous. Here are just 4 of them. 


One of the most famous landmarks in Arlington is the Pentagon. This massive building is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, and it employs over 23,000 people. The Pentagon was completed in 1943, and it is one of the largest office buildings in the world. 
The Pentagon Memorial is located just outside of the Pentagon building, and it honors the 184 people who died as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001. The memorial consists of 184 benches, each one representing a victim, and it is meant to be a place of reflection and remembrance. 
The Arlington National Cemetery is one of the most famous cemeteries in America. This cemetery is the final resting place for over 400,000 military service members and their families. Some of the most famous people buried here include John F. Kennedy, Robert E. Lee, and Audie Murphy. 
The Washington Redskins are one of America's most popular professional football teams. The team plays its home games at FedEx Field, which is located in Arlington. The Redskins have won 5 NFL Championships and 3 Super Bowls. 
Arlington, Virginia, is a city with a lot to offer. From being home to some of America's most iconic landmarks to being the home of one of America's most popular football teams, there are many reasons why Arlington is famous. If you're ever in the area, be sure to check out some of these famous landmarks for yourself!

Can you take a stroll around Arlington, Virginia?

Published On: - 09-07-2022

Walkable cities benefits are numerous  for the community's economy, health, mobility, and environment. Cities that are walkable have a more relaxed and pedestrian-friendly atmosphere than car-oriented communities. Arlington is in the same boat. The city's walkable culture encourages pedestrians, bikers, and bicyclists to use public transportation rather than drive. 

The WalkArlington initiative encourages people to walk in Arlington through activities and materials. A Walkabout map tour allows visitors to explore the city's various neighborhoods. A Pedestrian Advisory Committee also gives county leaders advice on how to plan for a community that is easy to get around on foot. 

Maywood, located near Arlington, Virginia, is a beautiful city with a long history. Around 200 of the 350 houses were built between 1909 and 1925. Among them are bungalows, craftsman, Tudor revival, and foursquare architectural styles. Furthermore, the majority of them are set back from the road. Maywood's unique layout allows visitors to see a variety of architectural styles.

The area offers a wide range of outdoor activities. Maywood Mini Park is a popular children's playground. A nature trail leads to Thrifton Hill Park as well. The neighborhood also has access to the Custis Trail, an asphalt path that follows Interstate 66. You can access Roosevelt Island's Mount Vernon Trail and the W& OD Railroad Regional Park Trail from there. 

There are numerous advantages to relocating Arlington, Virginia. In addition to being close to the national capital, the region offers a wide range of local amenities. Locals participate in a variety of social events, including street festivals, progressive dinners, and holiday activities. There are also many places in town to relax and exercise, such as tennis courts and a park with a playground. 

Alcova Heights is located in Arlington's southern region. It is a popular neighborhood of single-family homes, though condos and apartment complexes are also available. This region is ideal for commuters due to its convenient location. There are numerous restaurants, coffee shops, parks, and entertainment centers nearby. 
Native Americans from the Powhatan Confederacy greeted the city's first immigrants in 1608. By the time Arlington County established the city as a separate entity, the Native Americans had already fled. This was primarily due to the Iroquois' frequent raids. 

The Bluemont neighborhood is located in the heart of Arlington. It consists of a mix of single-family homes, townhouses, and older homes. The area is well-known for housing some of Arlington's best restaurants. Bluemont's most popular restaurants are Pupatella and Bon Air Memorial Park.  Bluemont has a diverse ethnic population. Despite the fact that English is the most commonly spoken language in families, many people also speak other languages. 14.8% of locals say they speak a language other than English at home. 

A walkable city is one in which it is easy to get around on foot and in which you can live a healthy lifestyle. Living in such a city provides numerous advantages, including improved health, financial gain, and environmental sustainability. Arlington, Virginia, is one of them. For example, the Arlington County government has a program called Walk Arlington that provides residents with tools and events to encourage them to get out and explore the city on foot. There are even walking tours available to show visitors around Arlington's neighborhoods. The county also has a Pedestrian Advisory Committee, which helps county leaders understand how good it is to be able to walk around and take steps to make the city more walkable. 

Arlington is an excellent place to live if you want to be close to Washington, DC. This city has a strong labor market, a long military history, and first-rate public transportation across the Potomac River. Young professionals, history buffs, and Washington, DC commuters should consider this city.  Arlington, Virginia, is a suburb of Washington, DC. Its development has been centered on a metrorail line. Arlington has eleven Metro stations, making it twice as popular as the rest of Virginia. But is it possible to take a stroll through Arlington? Find out more! 

With an Example, What Is Urbanization?


The process of increasing the number of people living in cities is known as urbanization. In other words, population growth is what allows cities to expand. The concept of better cities has an impact on urbanization. It can happen naturally, but it is more often the result of massive outside influxes. As a result, city populations are rapidly increasing. While this process has a variety of effects, it generally has an impact on one's quality of life.

While urbanization has a number of negative consequences, it has also had some positive consequences. The increased population density in cities creates job opportunities in all sectors of the economy. It also results in better medical and educational services. Furthermore, urbanization can boost a country's GDP, which measures the total value of goods and services produced. As a result, urbanization has the potential to make cities more efficient and prosperous. The economic consequences of urbanization cannot be overlooked.

There are three types of urbanization: traditional, planned, and organic. Human activity has traditionally been concentrated in the downtown core of developed cities. New roads and parcels of land are frequently created and cordoned off for specific purposes. Immigrants and newcomers frequently settle in the heart of impoverished cities, transforming them into epicenters of urbanization. The second type of urbanization, known as peripheralization, describes the process by which people from the city's outskirts live in the city center.

Another major cause of urbanization is the Industrial Revolution. It enabled new factories to draw from a large pool of labor, allowing factories to specialize in specific products. Unfortunately, the nineteenth-century industrialization resulted in deplorable living conditions for thousands of workers. As a result, many people from rural areas moved to cities in search of paid work. These migrants lived in overcrowded slums riddled with disease and filth.

Countries' rates of urbanization vary. Some countries are more urban than others, and some have a high rate of urbanization. The United States, for example, has a high rate of urbanization, with large cities housing more than half of the population. Other countries, on the other hand, have low rates, with less than 10% of the population living in large cities. Many definitions exist, but the common goal should be to develop an accurate concept of urbanization.

While urbanization has many benefits, it also has drawbacks. Income is strongly correlated with the rate of urbanization. Higher incomes are frequently associated with better living conditions such as sanitation, water, and nutrition. However, the reality is that a large proportion of the population lives in urban slums, with limited access to basic resources. That is, urbanization increases both the number of people living in cities and the cost of living in these areas.

The first villages are established, and thus the process of urbanization begins. During the Uruk Period in ancient Mesopotamia, this process began (4300-3100 BCE). Although the reasons for the initial urbanization process are unknown, scholars believe that the presence of a prosperous village drew tribes to settle there. Permanent villages date back to the Neolithic period, and the practice of performing magical ceremonies in caves is a much older phenomenon. Yoruba towns in Nigeria were major commercial centers by the nineteenth century.

The process of counterurbanization has emerged as urbanization continues to grow. Because of the outflow of people from large settlement areas, the size of the settlement area shrinks in counterurbanization. This process enables people to pursue their educational and career goals without regard for geography. However, it exacerbates the problem of urban overcrowding. Despite these challenges, the counterurbanization process is a positive factor in urbanization and is frequently a good example of urbanization's positive effects.

Cities housed less than 5% of the world's population at the turn of the nineteenth century. The majority of people in the region have chosen to live in rural areas and work on farms or in other traditional jobs. By the end of the twentieth century, the proportion of urban residents had risen to nearly 40%, and it is expected to reach 50% in 2015.

Conflict over land rights has accompanied urbanization in developing countries. Slums have grown rapidly in many places as a result of urbanization. Rapid urbanization has also resulted in violence against peasants who oppose the process in other places. As a result, urban unemployment is among the highest in the country. Furthermore, increased population strains transportation systems, resulting in traffic congestion and vehicular pollution.

What Exactly Is Data Gathering?

Published On: 07-25-2022

Although data gathering is not new, the methods used to obtain it have developed throughout time. Take a look at the many types of surveys and focus groups. Become proficient in the practice of conducting document-based research before you begin working on your next assignment. Each type's operation will be described in detail in this article. The number of purposes for which you currently gather data may surprise you. In addition, you don't need to begin from scratch.

In order to observe, you must first record what you're seeing and then analyze it afterward. A person's usage of or behavior in a certain setting should be the basis for your observations It's also a good idea to set yourself apart from those who made the original observations. Nonverbal cues, for example, can be recorded and interpreted in a variety of ways. A look at three different kinds of observations is what we'll do in this post.
The observer's role changes based on the study method you use. Both an outsider and an insider perspective are used by researchers in different investigations. The degree of outsider or insider perspective is generally a moveable continuum that can change across time and place. The term "participant observation" refers to someone who is actively involved in the scenario they are seeing. You can use this strategy if you need to reach a wide crowd but don't have the resources to do it.
Questionnaires are the most commonly used data collection methods among the many others. By standardizing the responses of survey participants, a questionnaire aids in data collection. Using these technologies removes the possibility of prejudice because they are objective. Although questionnaires can be useful, they can limit the study's flexibility by restricting the amount of follow-up questions, additional responses, and explanations for replies. Furthermore, they should only be used for research involving a small number of sources.
The ease with which questionnaires may be disseminated allows researchers to obtain data from a large number of people at once. When compared to one-on-one interviews, this strategy saves both time and effort. It is also simpler to answer questionnaires since respondents find it more convenient. This results in higher quality replies. A questionnaire is very affordable and easy to make. Online, on paper, and face-to-face are all options for delivering them. All that matters is that they be constructed appropriately, whether open- or closed-ended.

 Despite its numerous advantages, document-based research may be an unpleasant experience. In fact, researchers who employ this technique say they have difficulty gathering data that can be relied upon to be accurate and dependable. This is due to the fact that textual documents rather than visuals are examined throughout the document analysis process. Document-based research may be enhanced using a variety of conventional methodologies. Peer debriefing is only one example of this type of practice. Document-based research has the following.

Focus groups, as opposed to polls, allow for more in-depth discussion and the generation of fresh ideas. They do, however, take a long time to complete for each individual reply. To ensure that all members of a group have equal response times, it is also vital to identify individuals with strong personality characteristics. To assist you run a focus group, here are a few tips: Additionally, you need to be aware of the various threats that may arise.
In order to address your research topic, you need more than one focus group. At the very least, you'll need three or four groups to get valid findings. Between six and twelve persons are ideal for each group. In order to have more than one group, you may wish to recruit more people than necessary. Participants should not know who you are, though, as this might skew your results. The data can also be pseudonymized.
Document-based research takes a long time to get started. Keeping this in mind is critical while doing a document search. Think about how you'll utilize the facts you gather from reading materials to answer your research questions. With document-based research, for example, it is possible to compare documents that are related to the same subject or event. In addition, visual information may be used to compare distinct issues.
A variety of things, such as data, papers, and records, fall under the accelerated category of research. Specimens and other materials gathered for purposes other than study can also be used in records-based research. Before doing records-based research, researchers should acquire the proper IRB review. Subjects who choose to participate in records-based research face several risks. The following is a list of some of the potential dangers of conducting records-based research. Here are a few things to keep in mind before diving into a records-based search.
Depending on the IRB and the nature of the study, certain record-based research may be deemed human subjects research. Federal standards provide for accelerated assessment of records-based research. However, it may necessitate a meeting of the IRB. Investigators should also verify with their institution's IRB office for unique regulations and procedures, as institutions may have stricter requirements than federal standards. Human subjects, as defined by federal regulations, comprise both live humans and data that has been gathered intentionally for study purposes. Individuals can be identified by coding systems or other approaches by a researcher.

    Three Different Types of Manufacturing Exist

    Published On: 07-04-2022

    Making finished goods used to be the primary goal of manufacturing. In this way, the value of raw materials and manufactured goods was increased by both individuals and businesses. However, the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century, as shown by  James Hurysz, revolutionized manufacturing by mechanizing it. Industrialization had an immediate and profound impact: it increased production while reducing employment. Today, the majority of people think of manufacturing as a process used to make mass-produced items like automobiles, furniture, and textiles.

    Product creation can be carried out mechanically, chemically, or biologically in an effort to maintain consistency. Production can go on for days, weeks, or even months without a pause because of this method of production. Despite the fact that continuous manufacturing is less flexible, it is the most efficient way to go about things. Volume is a common way to measure the results of this process. It is employed in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, metals, and food products.

    Manufacturing is a multifaceted process in the industrial sector. One of the many responsibilities of industrial engineering is determining the layout of factories and estimating their operating costs. Contrary to this, manufacturing engineers design and evaluate manufacturing systems. The movement of materials through the manufacturing process is coordinated by production/materials control. Finally, the manufacturing process results in the creation of a final product. In addition, human resources, such as compensation, training, and labor relations, play a role in manufacturing.

    Make-to-order manufacturing is a type of this manufacturing process. While there are some similarities between MTO and ETO, the degree of customization and the amount of inventory that a business maintains are two major differences between the two. Consequently, companies that use this approach are better able to manage lists and respond more quickly to market demands. MTO, on the other hand, relies on a steady flow of orders from customers. Therefore, if you want to stay in business, you need to produce products based on customer demand.

    Batch, assembly line, and repetitive manufacturing are the most common methods of producing a product. This type of manufacturing is called batch manufacturing, while discrete manufacturing is called discrete manufacturing, according to James Hurysz. Labor costs are typically higher in batch production and production on assembly lines. The production rate can be adjusted to meet the needs of the customer in both cases, however.

    Another manufacturing method is flow-line production. Production lines and specialized equipment are used in these procedures. Compared to discrete manufacturing, their output is higher, but their workforce is less skilled. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. The latter uses a machine that performs each step faster than a human worker can. In addition, flow line manufacturing necessitates a lower degree of expertise than other types of manufacturing.

    This type of manufacturing has been practiced for a long time in traditional societies. In the past, manufacturing was done by skilled artisans. Apprenticeship was used to teach this skill. Households in the manufacturing industry will occasionally band together to form a unified enterprise (joint venture). Some businesses, on the other hand, perform better than others. According to a recent government report, there were 4.3 million people employed in manufacturing in the United Kingdom. Manufacturing accounts for 20 percent of the GDP in the United States (GDP).

    Continuous, discrete, and job shop manufacturing processes are the most common in today's businesses. Creating products for a single customer and doing so in a smaller quantity is known as the former. The second method involves making batches of products and using a manufacturing line to do so. Manufacturers can produce products more quickly and cheaply thanks to the latter type of specialized equipment, which replaces manual labor such as machine tools. Different materials are used in discrete manufacturing.

    The process of turning raw materials into finished goods is known as production. All inputs are used in the production, including raw materials and finished goods as well as money and credit. When it comes to manufacturing, it's common to bring up the subject of mass production. Although the methods of production differ, the ends they seek to achieve are the same. For the most part, production is the process of converting raw materials into finished goods and selling them for profit. This means that manufacturing and production are mutually reinforcing.

    Mass production, as per James Hurysz, entails the creation of a large number of products. With this type of production, the goal is to save money and meet the needs of a constantly changing customer base. Because the cost-per-unit for mass-produced goods is often high, companies may respond to a drop in demand by temporarily lowering prices. Fortunately, this strategy works even if the product is of poor quality. The manufacturing process is divided into stages during mass production. One machine fills green beans, another seals them, and a third monitors the automated labeling. In the end, a forklift operator will move the completed packages to the manufacturing warehouse.